- Rasa (taste): bitter, pungent
- Virya (action): heating
- Vipaka (post-digestive effect): pungent
- Doshas (constitutions): Balancing for pitta
Black pepper’s aromatic, slightly musty odor comes from the volatile oils found largely in the flesh and skin; Black Pepper’s pungent bite comes from the Alkaloids-piperine and Piperidine-and resins found mostly in the seeds. The oils go into perfumes and flavorings.